Burns are the consequence of contact of the body's skin with a source of heat. Fire, hot liquids, caustics or chemicals, electricity and the sun are the agents that can cause burns. In children, the origin of burns is usually accidental or domestic.
According to their severity, they can be distinguished three types of burns, first, second, or third degree. The assessment of the severity in relation to the burns will depend on the extent and depth of the burn.
First grade: They are superficial lesions that destroy only the epidermis, which is the first layer of the skin. They manifest with redness or erythema, hyperemia, pain, and inflammation. They do not usually have skin tears nor do blisters form.
Second grade: These burns cause the loss of the epidermis and the basal layer of the dermis. They are characterized by the appearance of blisters or blisters, pain, hyperemic and exudative skin. Rubbing blisters are also considered second degree burns and tend to spontaneous epithelialization.
Third degree: They are the most serious and are characterized by a total and profound loss of the dermis and epidermis. They usually manifest without pain because the nerve endings in the area have been injured, they usually have necrotic and irregular borders and the lesion is red or black and subcutaneous fat can be seen.
1. Wash your hands with cold water.
2. Cool the skin of the burn under running cold water.
3. Clean the wound with isotonic saline or physiological saline, using the drag method, never pressure irrigation.
4. Allow to air dry and apply an antiseptic with the properties of a gel such as chlorhexidine.
5. When the chlorhexidine is dry, cover the burn with a sterile gauze or hydrocolloid dressing to avoid contamination and possible friction. It is very important that the bandage does not stick to the wound.
6. Check the burn every 12 hours to see its appearance and perform a new cure.
- It is advisable to use transparent antiseptics that do not mask the appearance of the wound.
- Do not use alcohol on open wounds.
- Do not touch the wounds with dirty hands.
- Do not use cotton.
- Do not apply tape directly on wounds.
- Do not blow on a wound.
- Do not violently remove gauze covering wounds.
- Do not explode the blisters.
- Do not remove foreign bodies.
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